Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident effector cells that could be the earliest responder to release a unique, stimulus-specific set of mediators in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury However, how MCs function in the hepatic IR has remained a formidable challenge due to the substantial redundancy and functional diverse of these mediators. Tryptase is the main protease for degranulation of MCs and its receptor-protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is widely expressed in endothelial cells. It is unclear whether and how tryptase/PAR-2 axis participates in hepatic IR. We employed an experimental warm 70% liver IR model in mice and found that tryptase was accumulated in the circulation during hepatic IR and positively correlated with liver injury. Tryptase inhibition by protamine can significantly down-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules and reduce neutrophil infiltration within the liver. The level of inflammatory factors and chemokines were also consistent with the pathological change of the liver. In addition, the treatment with exogeneous tryptase in MC-deficient mice can induce the damage observed in wild type mice in the context of liver IR. In vitro, neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory factor secretion were regulated by Tryptase/PAR-2, involving the adhesion molecule expression to regulate neutrophil adhesion dependent on NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: tryptase/PAR-2 participates in liver injury through the activation of LSECs in the early phase of liver IR.
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