International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 2017 03 15() pii 10.1016/j.ijid.2017.03.010
To establish the relationship of Hepatitis B and HTLV-1 serological markers in the Northern Territory, Australia.
A retrospective serological study of patients, presenting to public healthcare facilities, in the Northern Territory between 2008 and 2015, was performed to determine presence and relationships of serological markers of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Human T-cell Leukemic virus 1 (HTLV-1).
There were 740 individual cases of serological positive HTLV-1 identified over 8 years in the Northern Territory. In these patients, 521 had Hepatitis B results available. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBVsAg) positivity was demonstrated in 83/521 (15.9%) of this cohort, which was significantly different to the HTLV-1 negative group, 125/3354 (3.7%), p <0.001. Excluding individuals with isolated surface antibody (sAb), those in the HTLV-1 positive group had a higher HBV exposure history, 352/521 (67.5%), when compared to HTLV-1 negative individuals, 1259/3354 (37.8%) (p <0.001). HTLV-1 positive individuals had lower prevalence of HBV combined HBVsAb and core antibody (HBVcAb) positive markers compared to those HTLV-1 negative, 198/352 (56.3%) versus 937/1269 (73.8%) p<0.001 respectively. CONCLUSIONS
Significantly higher prevalence rates of HBV are found in HTLV-1 positive individuals from the Northern Territory. When considering the higher exposure of HBV in HTLV-1 positive individual’s, clearance of HBV appears lower than those individuals testing HTLV-1 negative. Lower prevalence of clearance, as signified by formation of HBVcAb and HBVsAb in HTVL-1 positive individual’s may equate to higher prevalence of ongoing infection compared to those individuals HTLV-1 negative.