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Hepatitis C co-infection is associated with an increased risk of incident chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy.

Hepatitis C co-infection is associated with an increased risk of incident chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy.
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Rossi C, Raboud J, Walmsley S, Cooper C, Antoniou T, Burchell AN, Hull M, Chia J, Hogg RS, Moodie EE, Klein MB, ,


Rossi C, Raboud J, Walmsley S, Cooper C, Antoniou T, Burchell AN, Hull M, Chia J, Hogg RS, Moodie EE, Klein MB, , (click to view)

Rossi C, Raboud J, Walmsley S, Cooper C, Antoniou T, Burchell AN, Hull M, Chia J, Hogg RS, Moodie EE, Klein MB, ,

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BMC infectious diseases 2017 04 0417(1) 246 doi 10.1186/s12879-017-2350-8

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has reduced mortality from AIDS-related illnesses and chronic comorbidities have become prevalent among HIV-infected patients. We examined the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients initiating modern antiretroviral therapy.

METHODS
Data were obtained from the Canadian HIV Observational Cohort for individuals initiating cART from 2000 to 2012. Incident CKD was defined as two consecutive serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) measurements <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) obtained ≥3 months apart. CKD incidence rates after cART initiation were compared between HCV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS
We included 2595 HIV-infected patients with eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73m(2) at cART initiation, of which 19% were HCV co-infected. One hundred and fifty patients developed CKD during 10,903 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). The CKD incidence rate was higher among co-infected than HIV mono-infected patients (26.0 per 1000 PYFU vs. 10.7 per 1000 PYFU). After adjusting for demographics, virologic parameters and traditional CKD risk factors, HCV co-infection was associated with a significantly shorter time to incident CKD (HR 1.97; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.90). Additional factors associated with incident CKD were female sex, increasing age after 40 years, lower baseline eGFR below 100 mL/min/1.73m(2), increasing HIV viral load and cumulative exposure to tenofovir and lopinavir.

CONCLUSIONS
HCV co-infection was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD among HIV-infected patients initiating cART. HCV-HIV co-infected patients should be monitored for kidney disease and may benefit from available HCV treatments.

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