The associations between dietary carbohydrate, fat intake, and inflammation are controversial. Most existing data are from industrialized societies which low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet is common and so their attribution to other populations remains unclear. We evaluated the association of fat and carbohydrate intakes with inflammatory markers in pre-menopause women with overweight or obesity in Iran.
Three hundred and sixty women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 were included to this study. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) indicated a trend towards significance across tertiles of total dietary carbohydrate. We found that the levels of galectin-3 were negatively associated with dietary carbohydrate in adjusted model. In addition, the levels of MCP-1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) were positively correlated to dietary carbohydrate. No significant relationship was demonstrated between inflammatory parameters and total fat intake). However, there was a borderline significant negative association between total fat intake and TGF-β level in adjusted model. Therefore, a total dietary carbohydrate were related to elevated inflammation risk, while a total fat intake were not associated to higher inflammation. This study suggests reconsideration of applying global dietary guidelines in societies with high carbohydrate diet.

© 2021. The Author(s).