Dietary fiber functions as a prebiotic to determine the gut microbe composition. The gut microbiota influences the metabolic functions and immune responses in human health. The gut microbiota and metabolites produced by various dietary components not only modulate immunity but also impact various organs. Although recent findings have suggested that microbial dysbiosis is associated with several respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and allergy, the role of microbiota and metabolites produced by dietary nutrients with respect to pulmonary disease remains unclear. Therefore, we explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolites produced by dietary fiber components could influence a cigarette smoking (CS)-exposed emphysema model. In this study, it was demonstrated that a high-fiber diet including non-fermentable cellulose and fermentable pectin attenuated the pathological changes associated with emphysema progression and the inflammatory response in CS-exposed emphysema mice. Moreover, we observed that different types of dietary fiber could modulate the diversity of gut microbiota and differentially impacted anabolism including the generation of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and sphingolipids. Overall, the results of this study indicate that high-fiber diets play a beneficial role in the gut microbiota-metabolite modulation and substantially affect CS-exposed emphysema mice. Furthermore, this study suggests the therapeutic potential of gut microbiota and metabolites from a high-fiber diet in emphysema via local and systemic inflammation inhibition, which may be useful in the development of a new COPD treatment plan.