Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with a significant and pervasive impact on patients’ lives. Identifying neurophysiological correlates of ADHD is important for understanding its underlying mechanisms, as well as for improving clinical accuracy beyond cognitive and emotional factors. The present study focuses on finding a diagnostic stable neural correlate based on evaluating MEG resting state frequency bands. Twenty-two ADHD patients and 23 controls adults were blindly randomized to two methylphenidate/placebo evaluation days. On each evaluation day state anxiety was assessed, a 2N-back executive function task was performed, and resting state MEG brain activity was recorded at three timepoints. A frequency-based cluster analysis yielded higher high-gamma power for ADHD over posterior sensors and lower high-gamma power for ADHD over frontal-central sensors. These results were shown to be stable over three measurements, unaffected by methylphenidate treatment, and linked to cognitive accuracy and state anxiety. Furthermore, the differential high-gamma activity evidenced substantial ADHD diagnostic efficacy, comparable to the cognitive and emotional factors. These results indicate that resting state high-gamma activity is a promising, stable, valid and diagnostically-relevant neurocorrelate of ADHD. Due to the evolving understanding both in the cellular and network level of high-gamma oscillations, focusing future studies on this frequency band bears the potential for a better understanding of ADHD, thus advancing the specificity of the evaluation of the disorder and developing new tools for therapy.
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