To determine whether high glucose (HG) compromises internalization of lysyl oxidase (LOX) through excess binding of LOX with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins.
To determine whether HG promotes binding of LOX with ECM proteins, fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV (Coll IV), total or ECM-only proteins from rat retinal endothelial cells grown in normal (N; 5 mM) or HG (30 mM) medium were analyzed by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot (WB). In parallel, coimmunostaining was performed to determine changes in LOX binding to FN or Coll IV. To determine the effect of HG on extracellular LOX levels, medium in which cells were grown for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days were assessed for LOX levels.
WB analysis using total protein showed LOX overexpression and elevated levels of LOX bound to Coll IV or FN in HG condition. Similarly, a significant increase in LOX bound to FN or Coll IV was observed in ECM-only protein. These data were supported by Z-stack confocal microscopy images from coimmunostaining. Furthermore, immunostaining performed on ECM layer revealed increased presence of LOX bound to Coll IV or FN. Additionally, when media from cells grown in HG was monitored, a maximal increase in LOX level was observed by day 3, which declined by day 7.
Findings indicate that HG promotes binding of LOX to FN and Coll IV extracellularly that results in reduced LOX internalization, attenuation of negative feedback, and upregulation of LOX expression associated with diabetic retinopathy.