THURSDAY, March 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) — High-intensity exercise training can reverse some manifestations of aging in the body’s protein function, according to a study published in the March issue of Cell Metabolism.
Matthew M. Robinson, from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and colleagues examined the molecular transducers of benefits from 12 weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval (HIIT), resistance (RT), and combined exercise training.
The researchers found that HIIT, RT, and combined exercise training enhanced insulin sensitivity and lean mass, but only HIIT and combined training correlated with improvement in aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. A more robust increase in gene transcripts was seen for HIIT than other exercise modalities, especially for older adults, although there was little overlap with corresponding individual protein abundance. Many age-related differences in the proteome were reversed with HIIT, especially mitochondrial proteins together with increased mitochondrial protein synthesis. Proteins involved in translational machinery were enhanced with both RT and HIIT, regardless of age. There were only small changes of methylation of DNA promoter regions.
“We provide evidence for predominant exercise regulation at the translational level, enhancing translational capacity and proteome abundance to explain phenotypic gains in muscle mitochondrial function and hypertrophy in all ages,” the authors write.
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