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High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.
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Chhoun P, Tuot S, Harries AD, Kyaw NTT, Pal K, Mun P, Brody C, Mburu G, Yi S,


Chhoun P, Tuot S, Harries AD, Kyaw NTT, Pal K, Mun P, Brody C, Mburu G, Yi S, (click to view)

Chhoun P, Tuot S, Harries AD, Kyaw NTT, Pal K, Mun P, Brody C, Mburu G, Yi S,

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PloS one 2017 11 0912(11) e0187591 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0187591
Abstract
BACKGROUND
With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces of Cambodia from May-June 2015. Information was obtained on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl, hypertension with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and hypercholesterolemia with fasting blood cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors.

RESULTS
The study sample included 510 adults living with HIV; 67% were female, with a mean age of 45 (standard deviation = 8) years. Of these, 8.8% had diabetes mellitus, 15.1% had hypertension and 34.7% had hypercholesterolemia. Of the total participants with non-communicable diseases (n = 244), 47.8% had one or more diseases, and 75% were not aware of their diseases prior to the study: new disease was diagnosed in 90% of diabetes mellitus, 44% of hypertension and 90% of hypercholesterolemia. Single disease occurred in 81%, dual disease in 17% and triple disease in 2%. In adjusted analyses, those consuming 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings as significantly with diabetes mellitus, those eating 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings and using lard for cooking were significantly associated with hypertension, and those being unemployed, having monthly income less than 100 USD and being underweighted were significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia.

CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in adults living with HIV in this study was considerably high, with most of these diseases newly identified through active screening in the survey. These findings strongly suggest that screening of non-communicable diseases should be integrated into routine HIV care in Cambodia.

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