Several risk factors contribute to dementia, but the role of obesity remains unclear. This study investigated whether increased body weight or central obesity were associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in a representative sample of older English adults.
We studied 6582 participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) who were aged ≥50 years and were dementia-free at baseline, that being either wave 1 (2002-2003) for study members who started at wave 1, or at either wave 2 (2004-2005) or 4 (2008-2009) for those who began the study as refreshment samples. Body mass index (BMI) was measured at baseline and categorized into normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference (WC) >88 cm for women and >102 cm for men. Cumulative incidence of dementia was ascertained based on physician-diagnosed dementia, an overall score >3.38 on the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) and Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) data at every ELSA wave from baseline until wave 8 (2016-2017). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between baseline BMI levels or abdominal obesity in relation to dementia incidence during the mean follow-up period of 11 years.
From the overall sample, 6.9% (n = 453) of participants developed dementia during the follow-up period of maximum 15 years (2002-2017). Compared with participants with normal weight, those who were obese at baseline had an elevated risk of dementia incidence [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.61] independent of sex, baseline age, apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4), education, physical activity, smoking and marital status. The relationship was slightly accentuated after additionally controlling for hypertension and diabetes (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.59). Women with central obesity had a 39% greater risk of dementia compared with non-central obese women (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.66). When compared with a normal BMI and WC group, the obese and high WC group had 28% (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.53) higher risk of dementia.
Our results suggest that having an increased body weight or abdominal obesity are associated with increased dementia incidence. These findings have significant implications for dementia prevention and overall public health.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.