Clinical sarcoma research 2017 05 047() 9 doi 10.1186/s13569-017-0075-5
Histone 3.3 (H3.3) hotspot mutations in bone tumors occur in the vast majority of giant cell tumors of bone (GCTBs; 96%), chondroblastomas (95%) and in a few cases of osteosarcomas. However, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and additional molecular characteristics of H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas are largely unknown.
In this multicentre, retrospective study, a total of 106 conventional high-grade osteosarcomas, across all age groups were re-examined for hotspot mutations in the H3.3 coding genes H3F3A and H3F3B. H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas were re-evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner and analyzed for genome-wide DNA-methylation patterns and DNA copy number aberrations alongside H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas and H3F3A G34W/L mutant GCTBs.
Six osteosarcomas (6/106) carried H3F3A hotspot mutations. No mutations were found in H3F3B. All patients with H3F3A mutant osteosarcoma were older than 30 years with a median age of 65 years. Copy number aberrations that are commonly encountered in high-grade osteosarcomas also occurred in H3F3A mutant osteosarcomas. Unlike a single osteosarcoma with a H3F3A K27M mutation, the DNA methylation profiles of H3F3A G34W/R mutant osteosarcomas were clearly different from H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas, but more closely related to GCTBs. The most differentially methylated promoters between H3F3A G34W/R mutant and H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas were in KLLN/PTEN (p < 0.00005) and HIST1H2BB (p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS
H3.3 mutations in osteosarcomas may occur in H3F3A at mutational hotspots. They are overall rare, but become more frequent in osteosarcoma patients older than 30 years. Osteosarcomas carrying H3F3A G34W/R mutations are associated with epigenetic dysregulation of KLLN/PTEN and HIST1H2BB.