Nature immunology 2016 12 2618(2) 225-235 doi 10.1038/ni.3647
The mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) avoids immune surveillance by dendritic cells (DCs), and thereby prevents protective adaptive immune responses, remain poorly understood. Here we showed that HIV-1 actively arrested antiviral immune responses by DCs, which contributed to efficient HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. We identified the RNA helicase DDX3 as an HIV-1 sensor that bound abortive HIV-1 RNA after HIV-1 infection and induced DC maturation and type I interferon responses via the signaling adaptor MAVS. Notably, HIV-1 recognition by the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN activated the mitotic kinase PLK1, which suppressed signaling downstream of MAVS, thereby interfering with intrinsic host defense during HIV-1 infection. Finally, we showed that PLK1-mediated suppression of DDX3-MAVS signaling was a viral strategy that accelerated HIV-1 replication in infected individuals.