Archives of virology 2017 02 08() doi 10.1007/s00705-017-3228-1
In recent years, the patterns of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) transmission in Iran have been changing gradually from drug injection to unprotected sexual contact. This study sought to investigate the phylogenetic trends and characteristics of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations of HIV-1 in a population that is mainly infected through homo/heterosexual contacts. Sixty newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV infection living in Tehran were recruited to this survey, and among them, 42 subjects were established to be infected through sexual intercourse. Following amplification and sequencing of the main part of the HIV-1 pol region, phylogenetic and drug-resistance mutation (DRM) analysis was successfully performed on these 42 patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the majority of the subjects were infected with subtype CRF35_AD (88%), followed by subtype B, with 7.1%, and subtype CRF01_AE, with 4.7%. A total of 7.1% of the subjects were found to be infected with HIV-1 variants with surveillance drug-resistant mutations (SDRMs) according to the last world health organisation (WHO) algorithm. All of the identified SDRMs belonged to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) class, including K103 N and V106A, which were found in three patients. Two minor HIV protease-inhibitor-related mutations (L10I and G73S) were detected in two patients, but these mutations are not included in the WHO SDRMs list. The dominance of HIV-1 subtype CRF35_AD was observed among subjects of this study who were infected through sexual contact. The moderate prevalence of SDRMs (7.1%) in this population emphasises the fact that the risk of treatment failure in HIV-infected individuals might increase in the future, and preventive measures should be considered by health authorities.