Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2016 12 19198(3) 1229-1241 doi 10.4049/jimmunol.1600742
A shock-and-kill approach involving the simultaneous treatment of HIV-1-infected patients with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and combination antiretroviral therapy was proposed as a means to eradicate viral reservoirs. Currently available LRAs cannot discriminate between HIV-1-infected and uninfected cells. Therefore, the risks and benefits of using broad-spectrum LRAs need to be carefully evaluated, particularly in the CNS, where inflammation and leukocyte transmigration must be tightly regulated. We used a real-time impedance-sensing system to dynamically record the impact of different classes of LRAs on the integrity of tight monolayers of the immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Results show that prostratin and bryostatin-1 can significantly damage the integrity of an endothelial monolayer. Moreover, prostratin and bryostatin-1 induce secretion of some proinflammatory cytokines and an increase of ICAM-1 expression. Additional studies demonstrated that prostratin and bryostatin-1 also affect adhesion and transmigration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as monocytes in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Prostratin and bryostatin-1 could thus be considered as potent regulators of BBB permeability and inflammation that influence leukocyte transport across the BBB. Altogether, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the potential risks and benefits of using a shock-and-kill approach with LRAs on the normal physiological functions of the BBB.