Journal of clinical microbiology 2018 02 14() pii 10.1128/JCM.01914-17
We assessed the additional diagnostic yield forblood stream infection (MTB BSI) from doing more than one TB blood culture in HIV-infected inpatients. In a retrospective analysis of two cohorts based in Cape Town, South Africa, 72/99 (73%) patients with MTB BSI were identified by the first of two blood cultures during the same admission, with 27/99 (27%, 95%CI 18 to 36%) negative on first culture but positive on second. In a prospective evaluation of up to 6 blood cultures over 24 hours, 9 out of 14 patients with MTB BSI (65%) grewon their first blood culture; 3 more patients (21%) were identified by a second independent blood culture at the same time point, and the remaining 2 diagnosed only on 4and 6blood cultures respectively. Additional blood cultures increase the yield for MTB BSI, similar to what is reported for non-mycobacterial BSI.