Expert review of respiratory medicine 2017 02 2111(3) 181-199 doi 10.1080/17476348.2017.1289841
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies. This is preceded by a consideration of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcome of pneumococcal disease. Expert commentary: Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, although there is inconsistent data on the preventive efficacy against pneumococcal infections. Some recent studies have documented unchanged incidences of IPD in adult patients in the cART era. With regard to pneumococcal vaccination, routine acceptance of the efficacy of the PCV13/PPV23 sequential administration prime-boost strategy awaits the outcome of clinical trials in those with HIV infection. Smoking cessation, and discontinuation of excessive alcohol consumption and intravenous drug abuse, are priority strategies to prevent severe pneumococcal infection.