BMC women’s health 2017 09 2617(1) 87 doi 10.1186/s12905-017-0450-7
Hormonal contraceptive use may be associated with a reduction in some premenstrual symptoms, however, the evidence remains equivocal. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations between ethnicity and hormonal contraceptive use with premenstrual symptoms.
One thousand one hundred two women participating in the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study provided data on their premenstrual symptoms and hormonal contraceptive use. Severity of symptoms was classified as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms was determined in the total population and among major ethnic groups. Logistic regressions were used to determine the association between ethnicity and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms. Logistic regressions were used to determine the associations between hormonal contraceptive use, and premenstrual symptoms, adjusting for ethnicity and other covariates.
Prevalence of individual symptoms varied, and the most commonly reported were cramps (75%), bloating (75%), mood swings (73%), increased appetite (64%), and acne (62%). Prevalence of cramps differed between ethnic groups with East Asians reporting a lower prevalence than Caucasians and South Asians (p < 0.05). Use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with a lower RR (95% CI) of experiencing moderate/severe: cramps (0.82, 0.72-0.93), clumsiness (0.22, 0.07-0.73), confusion (0.22, 0.09-0.54) and desire to be alone (0.45, 0.28-0.73). Hormonal contraceptive use was not associated with the risk of premenstrual symptoms at mild severity. Hormonal contraceptive use was not associated with symptoms of anxiety, bloating, mood swings, increased appetite, acne, fatigue, sexual desire, depression, nausea, headache and insomnia. CONCLUSION
This study demonstrates that East Asians may be at a lower risk of experiencing premenstrual cramps and that hormonal contraceptive use is associated with a lower risk of experiencing many, but not all, premenstrual symptoms at moderate/severe severity.