Annual review of immunology 2017 12 13() doi 10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053318
In the last few decades, the AIDS pandemic and the significant advances in the medical management of individuals with neoplastic and inflammatory conditions have resulted in a dramatic increase in the population of immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic, life-threatening fungal infections. The parallel development of clinically relevant mouse models of fungal disease and the discovery and characterization of several inborn errors of immune-related genes that underlie inherited human susceptibility to opportunistic mycoses have significantly expanded our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that protect against ubiquitous fungal exposures. This review synthesizes immunological knowledge derived from basic mouse studies and from human cohorts and provides an overview of mammalian antifungal host defenses that show promise for informing therapeutic and vaccination strategies for vulnerable patients. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 36 is April 26, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.