Asthma is associated with increased rate of acute chest syndrome (ACS), pain episodes and premature death. Differentiating between an acute asthma exacerbation and ACS is a challenge clinically as they can present with similar symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of symptoms of asthma or broncho spasm in any children with sickle cell disease, as adequate treatments are required. In this mini-review, we selected 16 clinical studies, published in English between 2004 and 2016, and reviewed all of the abstracts and references of the selected articles. We subsequently selected articles that were focused on asthma in children with sickle cell disease. Given the pathophysiological mechanisms of ACS and the association between asthma and sickle cell disease, the management approach of asthmatic children should be clarified. Bronchodilators should be used if there are clinical features suggestive of a history of asthma or evidence of acute broncho spasm. The indication for cortisone should be reassessed. This literature review failed to conclude on therapeutic modalities of ACS in asthmatic children with sickle cell disease. Only a well designed, multicenter adequately-powered randomized controlled study of each of them will allow assessing their real benefits and risks.

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