The following is a summary of “Association of LDL-cholesterol subfractions with cardiovascular disorders: a systematic review,” published in the November 2023 issue of Cardiology by Chary et al.
Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), or heart diseases, are the leading cause of death globally.
Researchers started a retrospective study to evaluate the association between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions and cardiovascular disorders.
They employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to ensure the systematic review’s thoroughness. Critical databases like PubMed, Scopus, Embase, International Statistical Institute (ISI), Web of Science, and Google Scholar were explored using an extensive search strategy from 2009 to February 2021. The systematic search incorporated terms such as low-density lipoprotein, LDL, subfractions, subclasses, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, chromatography, high-pressure liquid, HPLC, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate bias in the assessment.
The results showed 33 articles. Most evaluated studies consistently showed that a higher LDL particle number was linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease independently of other lipid measurements. Additionally, small dense LDL was associated with a higher risk of CVDs. However, a few studies found no association between LDL subfractions and CVDs.
Investigators concluded that LDL subclasses may be a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases, but further research is needed.