To avoid and cure pressure injuries (PIs) in critically sick adult patients, it was important to study the relevant scientific research on nutrition.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Public MEDLINE (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), and Web of Science were among the databases searched. “Pressure injury,” “nutrition,” and “intensive care” were the MeSH words utilized. The studies covered the period from January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2020. Seven papers were included in the evaluation because they satisfied the qualifying requirements. The investigations were conducted in August 2020. The writers chose studies available in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. The searches were done by two separate researchers, who also examined the paper titles and abstracts. The research that matched the requirements for inclusion underwent a thorough review. When reviewers could not agree, a senior investigator was consulted. Differences between reviewers were settled by consensus wherever possible. A uniform form was used for data extraction.
Following the categorization suggested by the Oxford Center Evidence-Based Medicine, the level of evidence was analyzed according to the kind of study. For the prevention and treatment of PI in the intensive care population, there was limited evidence on the use of standard enteral nutrition therapy and enteral nutrition therapy enriched with hyper protein and hypercaloric nutrition supplements, as well as the addition of zinc, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and vitamins (A, C, D, and E).
Malnutrition has a detrimental effect on PI repair and prevention. Unfortunately, there was little data to support any one nutrition method in preventing and treating PI in the critical care population, whether it was normal enteral nutrition therapy or enrichment with nutritional supplements.