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How to Prevent Renal Cachexia? A Clinical Randomized Pilot Study Testing Oral Supplemental Nutrition in Hemodialysis Patients With and Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

How to Prevent Renal Cachexia? A Clinical Randomized Pilot Study Testing Oral Supplemental Nutrition in Hemodialysis Patients With and Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
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Zilles M, Betz C, Jung O, Gauer S, Hammerstingl R, Wächtershäuser A, Vogl TJ, Geiger H, Asbe-Vollkopf A, Pliquett RU,


Zilles M, Betz C, Jung O, Gauer S, Hammerstingl R, Wächtershäuser A, Vogl TJ, Geiger H, Asbe-Vollkopf A, Pliquett RU, (click to view)

Zilles M, Betz C, Jung O, Gauer S, Hammerstingl R, Wächtershäuser A, Vogl TJ, Geiger H, Asbe-Vollkopf A, Pliquett RU,

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Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation 2017 11 14() pii 10.1053/j.jrn.2017.07.003

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
End-stage renal disease associates with catabolism and sarcopenia. Hypothetically, peroral supplemental nutrition over 6 months prevents catabolism in hemodialysis patients.

DESIGN
Prospective randomized pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687050).

SUBJECTS
Twenty-three hemodialysis patients (15 males and 7 females) with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of 2 ambulatory hemodialysis centers.

INTERVENTION
HIV-positive hemodialysis patients (n = 7, Group 1) were started on supplemental nutrition drinks (250 kcal/day), HIV-negative hemodialysis patients (n = 16, Group 2) were randomized to supplemental nutrition drinks (250 kcal/day) or received none.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Body impedance analysis, anthropometric measures, magnetic resonance imaging results for mid-iliopsoas muscle cross-sectional area and laboratory parameters including albumin, cytokines at baseline, and at 6 months follow-up.

RESULTS
Seven patients in Group 1 (mean age: 50.6 ± 9.6 years) and 16 patients in Group 2 (mean age: 54.0 ± 13.3 years) were recruited. Serum creatinine (Group 1: 6.4 ± 3.0 mg/dL; Group 2: 10.7 ± 2.5 mg/dL; P < .01), Body impedance analysis-derived phase angle alpha (Group 1: 5.1 ± 1.2; Group 2: 6.9 ± 1.6; P < .01), mid-arm circumference (Group 1: 26.1 ± 1.3 cm; Group 2: 29.6 ± 2.4 cm; P < .01) were less in Group 1 versus Group 2 patients at baseline suggesting that HIV-positive hemodialysis patients had a poorer nutritional status at baseline. At 6-month follow-up, mortality was higher in Group 1 patients (29%) than in Group 2 patients (6%). There was no significant treatment effect on nutritional status in survivors of Group 1 or in the supplemental nutrition arm of Group 2 when compared with baseline or to untreated controls. CONCLUSIONS
A new oral supplemental nutrition over 6 months had no treatment effect in surviving HIV-positive hemodialysis patients or in maintenance hemodialysis patients without HIV infection. The limitations of this study were small study size and unexpected high mortality among HIV-positive hemodialysis patients.

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