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Human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among young women and men in Maputo city, Mozambique.

Human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among young women and men in Maputo city, Mozambique.
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Edna Omar V, Orvalho A, Nália I, Malin K, Gabriella LL, Torbjörn R, Charlotta N, Kerstin F, Nafissa O, Ilesh Vindorai J, Sören A,


Edna Omar V, Orvalho A, Nália I, Malin K, Gabriella LL, Torbjörn R, Charlotta N, Kerstin F, Nafissa O, Ilesh Vindorai J, Sören A, (click to view)

Edna Omar V, Orvalho A, Nália I, Malin K, Gabriella LL, Torbjörn R, Charlotta N, Kerstin F, Nafissa O, Ilesh Vindorai J, Sören A,

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BMJ open 2017 07 177(7) e015653 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015653

Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known cause of cervical cancer, the second most frequent cancer in female African populations. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of HPV infections and the genotype distribution in young adults aged 18-24, in Maputo city, Mozambique, and to assess the suitability of commercially available HPV vaccines.

METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2011 at a youth clinic in Maputo Central Hospital. Cervical and urethral samples were obtained from 236 women and 176 men, respectively. Demographic and behavioural data were collected using structured questionnaires. HPV genotyping was performed for 35 different high, probably or possibly high-risk and low-risk HPV types using the CLART Human Papillomavirus 2.

RESULTS
HPV prevalence was 168/412 (40.8%; 95% CI 36.0 to 45.5) and was significantly higher in women than in men (63.6%vs10.2%). HPV52 was the most frequent type found in women, followed by HPV35, -16,-53, -58,-6 and -51. In men, HPV51 ranked the highest, followed by HPV6, -11,-52, -59 and -70. HIV infection and sexual debut before 18 years of age were associated with multiple HPV infections (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.49 to 6.25 and OR 6.03; 95% CI 1.73 to 21.02, respectively). Women had a significantly higher HPV infection prevalence than men (p<0.001). The 9-valent HPV vaccine would cover 36.8% of the high-risk genotypes circulating in women in this study, compared with 26.3% and 15.8% coverage by the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. CONCLUSION
This study confirmed the high burden of HPV infections in young women in Maputo city, Mozambique. The HPV prevalence was associated with high-risk sexual behaviour. Sex education and sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions should be intensified in Mozambique. Only a proportion of the high-risk HPV genotypes (37%) were covered by currently available vaccines.

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