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Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: A developmental study.

Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: A developmental study.
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Xavier-Neto J, Carvalho M, Pascoalino BD, Cardoso AC, Costa ÂM, Pereira AH, Santos LN, Saito Â, Marques RE, Smetana JH, Consonni SR, Bandeira C, Costa VV, Bajgelman MC, Oliveira PS, Cordeiro MT, Gonzales Gil LH, Pauletti BA, Granato DC, Paes Leme AF, Freitas-Junior L, Holanda de Freitas CB, Teixeira MM, Bevilacqua E, Franchini K,


Xavier-Neto J, Carvalho M, Pascoalino BD, Cardoso AC, Costa ÂM, Pereira AH, Santos LN, Saito Â, Marques RE, Smetana JH, Consonni SR, Bandeira C, Costa VV, Bajgelman MC, Oliveira PS, Cordeiro MT, Gonzales Gil LH, Pauletti BA, Granato DC, Paes Leme AF, Freitas-Junior L, Holanda de Freitas CB, Teixeira MM, Bevilacqua E, Franchini K, (click to view)

Xavier-Neto J, Carvalho M, Pascoalino BD, Cardoso AC, Costa ÂM, Pereira AH, Santos LN, Saito Â, Marques RE, Smetana JH, Consonni SR, Bandeira C, Costa VV, Bajgelman MC, Oliveira PS, Cordeiro MT, Gonzales Gil LH, Pauletti BA, Granato DC, Paes Leme AF, Freitas-Junior L, Holanda de Freitas CB, Teixeira MM, Bevilacqua E, Franchini K,

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PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2017 02 2311(2) e0005363 doi 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005363
Abstract

The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans) produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc) embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5-9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities correlated with damage to the placenta, particularly to the labyrinthine layer, suggesting that circulatory changes are integral to the altered phenotypes.

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