AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017 07 05() doi 10.1089/AID.2017.0008
Hypertension is a growing problem in the HIV population. The relationship between low nadir CD4 count and hypertension in the HIV-infected population has been reported. However, the effect of nadir CD4 on hypertension due to a different body mass index (BMI) is yet to be fully elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, 345 HIV-infected participants aged ≥40 years were recruited. They were frequency matched and compared with age, sex, and education with HIV-uninfected adults (n = 345). Hypertension prevalence was lower in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected participants (23.8% vs. 31.9%; p = .011), but this association was not significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Among HIV-infected individuals, older age, overweight, with a family history of cardiovascular diseases, and nadir CD4 count <50 cells/μl were independently associated with hypertension. Stratifying individuals with BMI category revealed that nadir CD4 count-regardless if it was operationalized as a dichotomous variable (<50 cells/μl) or continuous variable-was found to be associated with hypertension among individuals who were underweight and obese, but not among those who were normal weight and overweight. Among HIV-uninfected individuals, older age and having a waist circumference above cutoff were significantly associated with hypertension. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that the association of nadir CD4 and hypertension is observed in underweight and obese HIV-infected patients. While these results suggest that the relationship between nadir CD4 count and hypertension might be mediated by body weight, future longitudinal studies will be needed to validate the findings, including its causal pathways.