Several studies have demonstrated that there is a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). However, effect sizes varied greatly between these studies, and a complete overview of the existing data in the literature is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the association between HDP and the risk of CVD-related morbidity and mortality.
Systematic literature searches were conducted in several electronic databases from inception to July 2019. Exposure of interest was any type of HDP. Outcomes of interest included any CVD, CVD-related mortality, and hypertension.
Sixty-six cohort and 7 case-control studies involving >13 million women were included. The overall combined relative risks (RRs) for women with a history of HDP compared with the reference group were 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67-1.94) for any CVD, 1.66 (1.49-1.84) for coronary artery heart disease, 2.87 (2.14-3.85) for heart failure, 1.60 (1.29-2.00) for peripheral vascular disease, 1.72 (1.50-1.97) for stroke, 1.78 (1.58-2.00) for CVD-related mortality, and 3.16 (2.74-3.64) for hypertension. Significant heterogeneity was partially explained by all or part of the variables including type of exposure, follow-up time, geographic region, and sample source.
Women with a history of HDP are at an increased risk of future CVD-related morbidity and mortality. Our study highlights the importance of life-long monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of HDP.
© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.