This prospective study sought to clarify the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) protein as values of diagnosis and risk stratification of prostate cancer (PCa).
From February 2017 to December 2019, a total 458 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy or surgery of benign prostatic hyperplasia agreed to research of Del-1 protein. We prospectively compared and analyzed the Del-1 protein and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in relation to the patients’ demographic and clinicopathological characteristics.
Mean age was 68.86±8.55 years. Mean PSA and Del-1 protein was 21.72±89.37, 0.099±0.145, respectively. Two hundred seventy-six (60.3%) patients were diagnosed as PCa. Among them, 181 patients underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). There were significant differences in Del-1 protein between benign and PCa group (0.066±0.131 vs 0.121±0.149, respectively, p<0.001). When we set the cut-off value of del-1 protein as 0.120, in patients with 3≤PSA≤8, positive predictive value and specificity of Del-1 protein (≥0.120) for predicting PCa were 88.9% (56/63) and 93.5% (101/108), respectively. Among 181 patients who underwent RP, there were significant differences in Del-1 protein according to stage (pT2 vs pT3a vs ≥pT3b) (0.113±0.078, 0.171±0.121, 0.227±0.161, respectively, p<0.001) and to Gleason score (6 (3+3) or 7 (3+4) vs 7 (4+3) or 8 (4+4) vs 9 or 10) (0.134±0.103, 0.150±0.109, 0.212±0.178, respectively, P = 0.044). Multivariate analysis showed that PSA, Del-1 protein and high Gleason score (≥9) were the independent prognostic factors for predicting higher pT stage (≥3b). Furthermore, age, PSA and Del-1 protein were independent prognostic factors for predicting significant PCa.
Patients with PCa showed higher expression of Del-1 protein than benign patients. Del-1 protein increased with the stage and Gleason score of PCa. Collaboration with PSA, Del-1 protein can be a non-invasive useful marker for diagnosis and risk stratification of PCa.