Leukemogenesis is characterized by chromosomal rearrangements with additional molecular disruptions, yet the cooperative mechanisms are still unclear. Using whole-exome sequencing of a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with ETV6-RUNX1 (E/R) gene fusion successively after birth, we identified the R209C mutation of G protein subunit alpha o1 (GNAO1) as a new ALL risk loci. Moreover, GNAO1 missense mutations are only recurrent in ALL patients and are associated with E/R fusion. Ectopic expression of the GNAO1 R209C mutant increased its GTPase activity and promoted cell proliferation and cell neoplastic transformation. Combined with the E/R fusion, the GNAO1 R209C mutant promoted leukemogenesis through activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. Reciprocally, activated mTORC1 phosphorylated p300 acetyltransferase, which acetylated E/R and thereby enhanced the E/R transcriptional activity of GNAO1 R209C. Thus, our study provides clinical evidence for the functional cooperation of GNAO1 mutants and E/R fusion, suggesting GNAO1 as a potential therapeutic target in human leukemia.
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