PloS one 2017 11 1012(11) e0187801 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0187801
As a consequence of demographic changes, hospitals are confronted with increasing numbers of elderly patients, who are at high risk of adverse events during hospitalization. Geriatric risk screening followed by comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and treatment has been requested by geriatric societies and task forces to identify patients at risk. Since empirical evidence on factors predisposing to adverse hospital events is scarce, we now prospectively evaluated implications of geriatric risk screening followed by CGA in a university hospital department of orthopedics and trauma surgery.
Three hundred and eighty-one patients ≥75 years admitted to the Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery of the University Hospital Essen received Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) Screening followed by CGA via a geriatric liaison service in case of positive screening results. Associations between ISAR, CGA, comorbid risk factors and diseases, length of hospital stay, number of nursing and physiotherapy hours, and falls during hospital stay were analyzed.
Of 381 ISAR screenings, 327 (85.8%) were positive, confirming a high percentage of patients at risk of adverse events. Of these, 300 CGAs revealed 82.7% abnormal results, indicating activities of daily living impairment combined with cognitive, emotional or mobility disturbances. Abnormal CGA resulted in a longer hospital stay (14.0±10.3 days in ISAR+/CGA abnormal compared with 7.6±7.0 days in ISAR+/CGA normal and 8.1±5.4 days in ISAR-, both p<0.001), increased nursing hours (3.4±1.1 hours/day in ISAR+/CGA abnormal compared with 2.5±1.0 hours/day in ISAR+/CGA normal and 2.2±0.8 hours/day in ISAR-, both p<0.001), and increased falls (7.3% in ISAR+/CGA abnormal, 0% in ISAR+/CGA normal, 1.9% in ISAR-). Physiotherapy hours were only significantly increased in ISAR+/CGA abnormal (3.0±2.7 hours) compared with in ISAR+/CGA normal (1.6±1.4 hours, p<0.001) whereas the comparison with ISAR- (2.4±2.4 hours) did not reach significance (p = 0.368). In multivariable regressions, the CGA domains activities of daily living impairment (assessed by Barthel-Index) and signs of depression (assessed by geriatric depression scale) predicted longer length of hospital stay. High ISAR score, and impairment in activities of daily living and cognition (assessed by mini-mental state examination and clock-drawing test) predicted increased nursing hours, and impairment in activities of daily living and mobility predicted increased physiotherapy hours. CONCLUSIONS
An abnormal geriatric screening and assessment is associated with longer hospital stay, more nursing and physiotherapy hours, and more falls.