Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) affects up to 20% of the adult population and is defined as troublesome and frequent symptoms of heartburn or regurgitation. GER produces significantly harmful impacts on quality of life and precipitates poor mental well-being. However, the potential risk factors for the incidence and extent of GER in adults undergoing general anesthesia remain unclear.
To explore independent risk factors for the incidence and extent of GER during general anesthesia induction.
A retrospective study was conducted, and 601 adult patients received general anesthesia intubation or laryngeal mask surgery between July 2016 and January 2019 in Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. This study recruited a total of 601 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia, and the characteristics of patients and the incidence or extent of GER were recorded. The potential risk factors for the incidence of GER were explored using multivariate logistic regression, and the risk factors for the extent of GER were evaluated using multivariate linear regression.
The current study included 601 adult patients, 82 patients with GER and 519 patients without GER. Overall, we noted significant differences between GER and non-GER for pharyngitis, history of GER, other digestive tract diseases, history of asthma, and the use of sufentanil ( 0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that female sex [odds ratio (OR): 2.702; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.144-6.378; 0.023], increased age (OR: 1.031; 95%CI: 1.008-1.056; 0.009), pharyngitis (OR: 31.388; 95%CI: 15.709-62.715; 0.001), and history of GER (OR: 11.925; 95%CI: 4.184-33.989; 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of GER, whereas the use of propofol could protect against the risk of GER (OR: 0.942; 95%CI: 0.892-0.994; = 0.031). Finally, age ( = 0.004), operative time ( < 0.001), pharyngitis ( < 0.001), history of GER ( = 0.024), and hypertension ( = 0.017) were significantly associated with GER time.
This study identified the risk factors for GER in patients undergoing general anesthesia including female sex, increased age, pharyngitis, and history of GER.

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