The incidence of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration disease, caused by changes in the osmotic pressure of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, increases with age. In general, low back pain is associated with IVD degeneration. However, the mechanism and molecular target of low back pain have not been elucidated, and there are no data suggesting specific biomarkers of low back pain. Therefore, the research aims to identify and verify the significant gene biomarkers of low back pain. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and the identification and analysis of significant gene biomarkers were also performed with various bioinformatics programs. A total of 120 patients with low back pain were recruited. Before surgery, the degree of pain was measured by the numeric rating scale (NRS), which enables comparison of the pain scores from individuals. After surgery, IVD tissues were obtained, and NP cells were isolated. The NP cells were cultured in two various osmotic media, including iso-osmotic media (293 mOsm/kg HO) to account for the morbid environment of NP cells in IVD degeneration disease and hyper-osmotic media (450 mOsm/kg HO) to account for the normal condition of NP cells in healthy individuals. The relative mRNA expression levels of CCL5, OPRL1, CXCL13, and SST were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in the in vitro analysis of the osmotic pressure experiments. Finally, correlation analysis and a neural network module were employed to explore the linkage between significant gene biomarkers and pain. A total of 371 DEGs were identified, including 128 downregulated genes and 243 upregulated genes. Furthermore, the four genes (CCL5, OPRL1, SST, and CXCL13) were identified as significant gene biomarkers of low back pain (P < 0.001) based on univariate linear regression, and CCL5 (odds ratio, 34.667; P = 0.003) and OPRL1 (odds ratio, 19.875; P < 0.001) were significantly related to low back pain through multivariate logistic regression. The expression of CCL5 and OPRL1 might be correlated with low back pain in patients with IVD degeneration disease caused by changes in the osmotic pressure of NP cells.