The objective of this research was to identify a global chemical pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urine capable of discriminating between women with cervical cancer (CC) and control women using an electronic nose and to elucidate potential biomarkers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A cross-sectional study was performed, with 12 control women, 5 women with CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia) and 12 women with CC. Global VOCs in urine were assessed using an electronic nose and specific by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was performed: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Principal Coordinate Analysis (CAP) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and the test’s diagnostic power was evaluated through ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves. Results from the PCA between the control group compared to the CC present variability of 98.4% (PC=93.9%, PC=2.3% and PC=2.1%). CAP model shows a separation between the overall VOCs profile of the control and CC group with a correct classification of 94.7%. PLS-DA indicated that 8 sensors have a higher contribution in the CC group. The sensitivity, specificity, value reached 91.6% (61.5%-99.7%) and 100% (73.5%-100%) respectively, according to the ROC curve. GC-MS analysis indicated that 33 compounds occur only in the CC group and some of them have been found in other types of cancer. In all, this study provides the basis for the development of an accessible, non-invasive, sensitive and specific screening platform for cervical cancer through the application of electronic nose and chemometric analysis.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.