Clinical sarcoma research 2017 05 047() 8 doi 10.1186/s13569-017-0074-6
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 or -2 are found in ~50% of conventional central chondrosarcomas and in up to 87% of their assumed benign precursors enchondromas. The mutant enzyme acquires the activity to convert α-ketoglutarate into the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG), which competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate dependent enzymes such as histone- and DNA demethylases.
We therefore evaluated the effect of IDH1 or -2 mutations on histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), chromatin remodeler ATRX expression, DNA modifications (5-hmC and 5-mC), and TET1 subcellular localization in a genotyped cohort (IDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH)) of enchondromas and central chondrosarcomas (n = 101) using immunohistochemistry.
IDH1 or -2 mutations were found in 60.8% of the central cartilaginous tumours, while mutations in FH and SDH were absent. The mutation status did not correlate with outcome. Chondrosarcomas are strongly positive for the histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, which was independent of the IDH1 or -2 mutation status. Two out of 36 chondrosarcomas (5.6%) show complete loss of ATRX. Levels of 5-hmC and 5-mC are highly variable in central cartilaginous tumours and are not associated with mutation status. In tumours with loss of 5-hmC, expression of TET1 was more prominent in the cytoplasm than the nucleus (p = 0.0001).
In summary, in central chondrosarcoma IDH1 or -2 mutations do not affect immunohistochemical levels of 5-hmC, 5mC, trimethylation of H3K4, -K9 and K27 and outcome, as compared to wildtype.