Ifosfamide, a widely prescribed antineoplasic agent, is frequently associated with kidney dysfunction. Its nephrotoxicity is well documented in children, but data are lacking in adult patients.
The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical, biological and histological characteristics of ifosfamide nephrotoxicity.
We report 34 patients (median age: 41 years) admitted in six French nephrology departments for kidney failure and/or tubular dysfunction. Fifteen patients (44.1%) received cisplatin as part of their chemotherapy. In 6 patients (17.7%), ifosfamide nephrotoxicity was revealed by a proximal tubular dysfunction (PTD), in 5 patients (14.4%) by an acute kidney injury (AKI), in 6 patients (17.7%) by a chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in 17 patients (49.7%) by an association of PTD and AKI. Fourteen renal biopsies (41.2%) were performed and revealed acute tubular necrosis (85.7%), vacuolation (78.6%) and nuclear atypias (71.4%) of renal epithelial cells, interstitial inflammation (71.4%) and fibrosis (57.1%). Electron microscopy showed mitochondrial enlargement and dysmorphic changes suggestive of mitochondrial toxicity. Ten patients (29.4%) progressed to Stage 5 CKD, six (17.6%) required haemodialysis and six patients died during a median follow-up period of 31 months. Risk factors for Stage 5 CKD were age and cisplatin co-administration.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.