This review reflects the presentations and discussion at the 14th post-ASH International Workshop on Chronic Myeloproliferative Malignancies, which took place on the 10th-11th December 2019, immediately after the 61st American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida. Rather than present a resume of the proceedings, we address some of the topical translational science research and clinically relevant topics in detail. We consider how recent studies using single-cell genomics and other molecular methods reveal novel aspects of hematopoiesis which in turn raise the possibility of new therapeutic approaches for patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We discuss how alternative therapies could benefit patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who develop BCR-ABL1 mutant subclones following ABL1-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy (TKIs). In MPNs, we focus on efforts beyond JAK-STAT and the merits of integrating activin receptor ligand traps, interferon-α, and allografting in the current treatment algorithm for patients with myelofibrosis (MF). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.