Radiologic clinics of North America 55(6) 1261-1271 pii 10.1016/j.rcl.2017.06.002
Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic tool for diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The low aggressiveness of many thyroid cancers coupled with high sensitivity of sonography can lead to cancer diagnosis and treatment with no effect on outcomes. Ultrasound is recognized as the most important driver of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis. Ultrasound should not be used as a general screening tool and should be reserved for patients at high risk of thyroid cancer and in the diagnostic management of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules. With prescreening risk stratification and application of consensus criteria for nodule biopsy, the value of the diagnostic ultrasound can be maximized.