Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) are disorders characterized by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic cell lineages. A link between pediatric immune cytopenias and inborn errors of immunity (IEI) was established in particular in the combined and chronic forms.
Aim of this study is to provide clinical-immunological parameters to hematologists useful for a prompt identification of children with immune cytopenias deserving a deeper immunological and genetic evaluation.
We retrospectively collected 47 pediatric patients with at least one hematological disorder among which persistent/chronic ITP, AIHA, and AIN, aged 0-18 years at onset of immune cytopenias and/or immune-dysregulation. The cohort was divided into two groups (IEI+ and IEI-), based on the presence/absence of underlying IEI diagnosis. IEI+ group, formed by 19/47 individuals, included: common variable immune deficiency (CVID; 9/19), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS; 4/19), DiGeorge syndrome (1/19), and unclassified IEI (5/19).
IEI prevalence among patients with ITP, AIHA, AIN, and Evans Syndrome was respectively of 42%, 64%, 36%, and 62%. In IEI+ group the extended immunophenotyping identified the presence of statistically significant (p  and the compound heterozygous TNFRSF13B variants p.Ser144Ter (pathogenic) and p.Cys193Arg (variant of uncertain significance), the other one carrying the likely pathogenic monoallelic variant TNFRSF13B:p.Ile87Asn.
The synergy between hematologists and immunologists can improve and fasten diagnosis and management of patients with immune cytopenias through a wide focused clinical/immunophenotypical characterization, which identifies children worthy of IEI-related molecular analysis, favouring a genetic IEI diagnosis and potentially unveiling new targeted-gene variants responsible for IEI phenotype.

© 2021 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.