We previously described an increased immune response 28 days after a booster dose of the live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in healthy adolescents and adults in Latin America (CYD64, NCT02623725). This follow-up study evaluated immune response persistence and safety of a CYD-TDV booster dose up to Month (M) 24 post-booster.
This study included 250 participants who previously received 3 primary doses of CYD-TDV in the CYD13 (NCT00993447) and CYD30 (NCT01187433) studies, and who were randomized 4-5 years later to receive a CYD-TDV booster or placebo (3:1). Dengue neutralizing antibodies against the parental dengue virus strains were assessed using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at M6, M12, and M24 post-booster. Post-booster memory B-cell responses were assessed in a subset of participants using the FluoroSpot assay up to M12 post-booster.
In the CYD-TDV group (n = 187), dengue neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) declined from the peak at day 28 through to M24 for all serotypes. GMTs at M24 were similar to those at pre-booster among baseline dengue seropositives. A similar trend was observed for baseline dengue seronegatives, albeit at a lower magnitude. Previous vaccination-induced detectable B-cell memory responses in seropositives and seronegatives that decreased to pre-booster levels at M12 post-booster. The CYD-TDV booster dose was well-tolerated.
In baseline dengue seropositives, following a CYD-TDV booster dose administered 4-5 years after primary immunization, dengue neutralizing antibody GMTs and B-cell memory responses peaked in the short-term before gradually decreasing over time. A CYD-TDV booster dose could improve protection against dengue during outbreak periods.