Vaccine 2017 01 0435(5) 767-773 pii 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.12.042
The protective efficacy and immunological profiles of chickens immunized with an attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) constitutively secreting double mutant heat labile enterotoxin (dmLT) were investigated. The dmLT is a detoxified variant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin and is a potent mucosal adjuvant capable of inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In this study, four-week-old chickens were inoculated with SE-dmLT strain JOL1641, parental SE strain JOL1087 or phosphate buffered saline control. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SE-dmLT inoculated birds showed significant proliferation upon stimulation with SE antigens as compared to the control and JOL1087 groups (P⩽0.05). One week post-challenge, the ratio of CD3(+)CD4(+) to CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cells showed a significant increase in the immunized groups. Significant increases in IFN-γ levels were observed in JOL1641 birds immunized via oral and intramuscular routes. While immunizations with the JOL1087 strain via the intramuscular route also induced significant increases in IFN-γ, immunization via the oral route did not trigger significant changes. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was also elevated significantly in immunized birds; a significant elevation of IL-10 was observed only in oral immunization with JOL1641 (P⩽0.05). JOL1641 immunized birds showed significant reduction of challenge bacterial-organ recovery as compared to JOL1087 and non-immunized birds. Collectively, our results revealed that immunization with the adjuvant-secreting S. Enteritidis confers protection against wild type SE challenge via induction of strong cell proliferative response, augmentation of CD3(+)CD4(+): CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cells ratio and enhancement of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine secretion.