Inotersen (TEGSEDI™) is a 2′–(2-methoxyethyl)-modified antisense oligonucleotide, intended for treating hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. The potential immunogenicity (IM) response to inotersen was evaluated in chronic nonclinical safety studies and the pivotal phase 2/3 clinical study. The evaluation was designed to assess the characteristics of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) and their effects on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety in animals and humans. No immunogenic response was observed after long-term treatment with inotersen in mice. In monkeys, the incidence rate of IM to inotersen appeared to be dose dependent, with 28.6%-50.0% of animals developing ADAs after 36 weeks of treatment. This was characterized as late onset (median onset of 185 days) with low titers (median titer of 8, or 400 if minimum required dilution of 50 is included). The overall incidence rate of patients who developed ADAs was 30% after 65 weeks of treatment with median onset of 203 days and median peak titer of 300. IM had minimal effect on plasma peak () and total exposure (i.e. area under curve, AUC) of inotersen, but showed elevated plasma trough levels in both IM-positive animals and humans. However, ADAs had no effect on tissue exposure, TTR messenger RNA, or plasma TTR levels in the long-term monkey study. Similarly, IM showed no effect on plasma TTR levels in clinical studies. Thus, ADAs antibodies were binding antibodies, but not neutralizing antibodies. Finally, no association was observed between IM and toxicity findings (eg, platelet, complement activation, and histopathology findings) in the inotersen 9-month monkey study. In humans, no difference was observed in hematology, including platelets, kidney function tests, or incidence of adverse events between IM-positive and -negative patients. Overall, IM showed no effect on toxicity or safety of inotersen evaluated in both monkeys and humans. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01737398.

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