Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is well-known as an antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, and it is easy to get response but often turns to relapse or refractory. Cyclosporin is a traditional immunosuppressant and had a good effect on ITP patients. In this paper, we retrospectively analyze the immunological characteristics and therapeutic effect of cyclosporin in 220 patients with ITP.
All newly diagnosed ITP patients in the Department of Hematology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from June 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the expression of autoantibodies and the occurrence of prodromal infection. The basic data and immune indexes of ITP patients in each group were collected. The clinical immunological characteristics of patients in each group and the therapeutic effect of cyclosporin in each group were analyzed.
Multi-autoantibody ITP patients were more likely to have low serum albumin and high gamma globulin, and the ratio of albumin to globulin decreased. In addition, the level of IgA and IgG increased and the level of complement C3 and C4 decreased more frequently than those in other groups. The number of CD3+T lymphocytes, especially CD3+CD4+T lymphocytes, decreased in ANA+ITP patients. The number of CD16+CD56+NK cells, pDC/DC ratio, and pDC/mDC ratio were higher than those in other groups. The expression of IL-6 and the proportion of CD19+B lymphocytes increased in two groups of ITP patients with abnormal autoantibodies. The patients of pro-infected group were more likely to suffer from coagulation disorder. After treatment with cyclosporin, the response rate increased and the 3-month relapse rate decreased in all ITP patients, and the therapeutic effect of patients with high megakaryocyte number was significantly higher than that of patients with low megakaryocyte number. The impact factors that influence the effect of glucocorticoid and(or) IVIG were the number of CD3+CD8+T lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 cell ratio, and the number of CD19+B lymphocytes. The independent impact factor of cyclosporin therapeutic response rate was the number of CD3+T lymphocytes.
ITP is a heterogeneous disease, recurrence may occur during or rapidly after treatment. Cyclosporine included treatment can improve the effective rate of ITP and reduce the relapse rate within 3 months. The number of CD3+T lymphocytes was the only impact factor that influence the therapeutic effect of cyclosporin in ITP patients.

© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.