The prevalence of allergic diseases in Brazil is one of the biggest in the world. Among these pathologies, we highlight asthma as one of the most importance. Asthma is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease of airways, associated with hyperresponsiveness. Many environmental factors can trigger asthma symptoms, among them house dust mites can stimulate hypersensitivity type I reaction. The most common in house dust mite, in tropical countries, are Dermatophagoides pteronysinus and Blomia tropicalis. Several studies have shown that helminths, especially Schistosoma mansoni, lead to reduction of symptoms of atopy and allergic diseases. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the ability of recombinant S. mansoni proteins Sm200, and SmKI-1 to induce immunomodulation in vitro, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from atopic and non-atopic individuals, stimulated or not with B. tropicalis extract, and in vivo, in a murine model of allergy to the mite B. tropicalis. As results, we observed that the fragment called rSm200-3 and the protein rSmKI-1 stood out for their immunomodulatory potential, stimulating IL-10 production by human PBMCs in vitro. When these proteins were associated with B. tropicalis extract, it was observed the reduction of the production of the cytokine IL-5, with a statistically significant difference in non-atopic individual’s cells. In vivo, both proteins presented similar results, with a reduction of IL-5 and IL-4 levels in lung homogenates and of serum IgE. SmKI-1 was also able to decrease the levels of EPO in lung homogenates and in BAL. These results showed that both proteins were able to downmodulate Th2 cells on human PBMCs, and in a murine model of allergy. However, SmKI-1 also reduced significantly the levels of EPO in BAL and lungs showing that this protein may be a good candidate to be used as a possible replacement or in conjunction with pharmacotherapy in individuals with unregulated immune response in asthma.
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