High-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy, administered as a conditioning regimen before stem cell transplantation, are known to negatively impact testicular function and sexuality. However, to date, only a few studies have simultaneously analyzed the real prevalence of these complications in this clinical setting. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of testicular dysfunction and sexual impairment in a cohort of males who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adulthood. This observational, cross-sectional, single-center study consecutively enrolled 105 subjects on outpatient follow-up. Testicular function and sexuality were evaluated through a hormonal profile (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and inhibin B) and the IIEF-15 questionnaire, respectively. We found a higher prevalence of hypogonadism (21%), impaired spermatogenesis (87%), and erectile dysfunction (72%) compared with the general population. Chronic graft-versus-host disease, especially of moderate/severe grade, was associated with an increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction (odds ratio, 6.338). Moreover, a high proportion of patients presented with alterations in all domains of sexual function, even after complete clinical remission of hematologic disease. Our data confirm both testicular function and sexuality alterations as frequent complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach is advisable for early diagnosis and adequate treatment.
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