Dementia is a major global challenge for health and social care in aging populations. A third of all dementia may be preventable due to cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive multi-domain intervention trials targeting primarily cardiovascular risk factors show improved cognitive function in people at risk. Such interventions will, however, be expensive to implement in all individuals at risk and will represent unrealistic economic tasks for most societies. Therefore, a risk score identifying high-risk individuals is warranted.
In 61 664 individuals from two prospective cohorts of the Danish general population, we generated 10-year absolute risk scores for all-cause dementia from cardiovascular risk factors and genetics. In both sexes, 10-year absolute risk of all-cause dementia increased with increasing age, number of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 alleles, number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) risk alleles, and cardiovascular risk factors. The highest 10-year absolute risks of all-cause dementia seen in smoking women with diabetes, low education, APOE ɛ44 genotype, and 22-31 GWAS risk alleles were 6%, 23%, 48%, and 66% in those aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-100, respectively. Corresponding values for men were 5%, 19%, 42%, and 60%, respectively.
Ten-year absolute risk of all-cause dementia increased with age, APOE ɛ4 alleles, GWAS risk alleles, diabetes, low education, and smoking in both women and men. Ten-year absolute risk charts for dementia will facilitate identification of high-risk individuals, those who likely will benefit the most from an early intervention against cardiovascular risk factors.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.