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Impact of early aggressive nutrition on retinal development in premature infants.

Impact of early aggressive nutrition on retinal development in premature infants.
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Lenhartova N, Matasova K, Lasabova Z, Javorka K, Calkovska A,


Lenhartova N, Matasova K, Lasabova Z, Javorka K, Calkovska A, (click to view)

Lenhartova N, Matasova K, Lasabova Z, Javorka K, Calkovska A,

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Physiological research 66(Supplementum 2) S215-S226
Abstract

The normal retinal development is interrupted by preterm birth and a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may develop as its consequence. ROP is characterized by aberrant vessel formation in the retina as a response to multiple risk factors influencing the process of retinal angiogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in the process of normal retinal vascularization. Insufficient nutrition during the first 4 postnatal weeks results in low serum levels of IGF-1, which is essential for correct retinal vessels formation, ensuring survival of the newly formed endothelial cells. Low IGF-1 level results in stop of angiogenesis in the retina, leaving it avascular and prompting the onset of ROP. Keeping the newborns in a positive energetic balance by providing enough nutrients and energy has a beneficial impact on their growth, neurodevelopment and decreased incidence of ROP. The best way to achieve this is the early parenteral nutrition with the high content of nutrients combined with early enteral feeding by the own mother´s breast milk. Multiple studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of early aggressive nutrition but information about its long-term effects on the metabolism, growth and development is still needed.

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