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Impact of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index on the prevalence of large-for-gestational age infants in two cohorts of women with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes: a cross-sectional population study.

Impact of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index on the prevalence of large-for-gestational age infants in two cohorts of women with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes: a cross-sectional population study.
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McWhorter KL, Bowers K, Dolan LM, Deka R, Jackson CL, Khoury JC,


McWhorter KL, Bowers K, Dolan LM, Deka R, Jackson CL, Khoury JC, (click to view)

McWhorter KL, Bowers K, Dolan LM, Deka R, Jackson CL, Khoury JC,

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BMJ open 2018 03 308(3) e019617 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019617
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Despite improvements in treatment modalities, large-for-gestational age (LGA) prevalence has remained between 30% and 40% among infants of mothers with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Our objective was to estimate LGA prevalence and examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with LGA among mothers with TIDM.

DESIGN
Cross-sectional study.

SETTING
Regional data in Cincinnati, Ohio, from the Diabetes in Pregnancy Program Project (PPG), a prospective cohort for the period 1978-1993; national data from Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL), a multicentre cross-sectional study for the period 2002-2008.

PARTICIPANTS
The study included 333 pregnancies in the PPG and 358 pregnancies in the CSL. Pregnancies delivered prior to 23 weeks’ gestation were excluded. Women with TIDM in the PPG were identified according to physician confirmation of ketoacidosis, and/or c-peptide levels, and by International Classification of Diseases, ninth version codes within the CSL. LGA was identified as birth weight >90th percentile according to gestational age, race and sex.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
LGA at birth.

RESULTS
Mean±SD maternal age at delivery was 26.4±5.1 years for PPG women and 27.5±6.0 years for CSL women, p=0.008. LGA prevalence did not significantly differ between cohorts (PPG: 40.2% vs CSL: 36.6%, p=0.32). More women began pregnancy as overweight in the later cohort (PPG (16.8%) vs CSL (27.1%), p<0.001). GWG exceeding Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines was higher in the later CSL (56.2%) vs PPG (42.3%) cohort, p<0.001. Normal-weight women with GWG within IOM guidelines had a lower LGA prevalence in CSL (PPG: 30.6% vs CSL: 13.7%), p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS
Normal-weight women with GWG within IOM guidelines experienced a lower LGA prevalence, supporting the importance of adherence to IOM guidelines for GWG to reduce LGA. High BMI and GWG may be hindering a reduction in LGA prevalence.

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