The Journal of infectious diseases 2017 10 17() doi 10.1093/infdis/jix407
Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience higher rates of virologic failure than adults. Human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) plays a major role in pediatric HIV treatment failure because nonsuppressive maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well as infant antiretroviral prophylaxis lead to high rates of pretreatment drug resistance to regimens most commonly used in children living with HIV. Lack of availability of durable, potent drugs in child-friendly formulations in LMICs and adherence difficulties contribute to acquired drug resistance during treatment. Optimizing drugs available for treating children living with HIV in LMICs, providing robust adherence support, and ensuring virologic monitoring for children receiving ART are essential for reducing HIVDR and improving treatment outcomes for children living with HIV in LMICs.