PloS one 2017 11 0212(11) e0186410 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0186410
Chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Although previous studies have suggested that the CKD-EPI formula is appropriate to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in HIV-positive adults with normal kidney function, the optimal way to estimate GFR in those with Stage 3 chronic kidney disease is not known. Moreover, the impact of muscle mass on creatinine level and GFR estimation is unknown.
AIM AND METHODS
Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of different diagnostic tests available compared to the gold standard measurement of GFR. A group of 44 HIV-1 patients with an estimated GFR between 60 and 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 were included in a single-center cross-sectional study. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured. GFR was estimated using Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD, sMDRD, CKD-EPI, CKD-EPIcyst, and CKD-EPIcyst/creat formulae and was measured using isotopic Chrome51 EDTA clearance. Bone density and muscle mass were measured by DXA scan.
Mean age was 62±10 years. Mean BMI was 23±4 kg/m2. Prevalence of diabetes was 30% and of hypertension was 47%. Viral load was <40 copies/ml for 90% of the patients, and mean CD4 count was 446±191 cells/mm3. Mean measured GFR was 63.4±16.5 ml/min/1.73 m2. All formulae under-estimated GFR. The best relative precision and accuracy were provided by the CKP-EPI formula. sMDRD, CKD-EPIcyst, and CKD-EPIcyst/creat performed worse than the CKD-EPI formula. Body composition did not significantly influence accuracy or precision of GFR estimation. CONCLUSION
In HIV-infected patients in stable immunovirologic conditions with CKD stage 3 and high prevalence of metabolic associated conditions, the CKD-EPI formula performed best, although all formulae under estimate GFR.