The following is a summary of “Effect of preoperative oral nutritional supplementation on surgical site infections among adult patients undergoing elective surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” published in the SEPTEMBER 2023 issue of Surgery by Cadili, et al.
For a study, researchers sought to determine the effects of oral nutritional supplements in reducing the occurrence of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs).
A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Studies conducted from their inception until July 2022 were included if they involved adult patients undergoing elective surgery and compared preoperative macronutrient oral nutritional supplements to either a placebo or a standard diet.
Out of 372 distinct citations, 19 were incorporated in the analysis (totaling 2480 participants): 13 Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) with 1,506 participants and 6 observational studies with 974 participants. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, it was found that nutritional supplements significantly reduced the risk of SSIs (Odds Ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.40–0.72, encompassing 2,718 participants). In the context of elective colorectal surgery, this risk reduction was even more pronounced at 0.43 (95% CI 0.26–0.61, involving 835 participants), and among patients who received Impact, it stood at 0.48 (95% CI 0.32–0.70, involving 1,338 individuals).
Administration of oral nutritional supplements before elective surgery in adults appeared to substantially lower the risk of SSIs, resulting in an overall protective effect of approximately 50%. The protective effect remained consistent in subgroup analyses involving colorectal surgery patients and cases where the supplement used was Impact.