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Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia in Finnish children in a nation-wide population-based study.

Impact of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia in Finnish children in a nation-wide population-based study.
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Palmu AA, Rinta-Kokko H, Nohynek H, Nuorti JP, Kilpi TM, Jokinen J,


Palmu AA, Rinta-Kokko H, Nohynek H, Nuorti JP, Kilpi TM, Jokinen J, (click to view)

Palmu AA, Rinta-Kokko H, Nohynek H, Nuorti JP, Kilpi TM, Jokinen J,

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PloS one 2017 03 0112(3) e0172690 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0172690
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 using a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months). We estimated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on pneumonia among children to evaluate the public health impact of the vaccine.

METHODS
We conducted a nation-wide population-based, observational study comparing rates of pneumonia in children before and after the NVP introduction. For the total (direct and indirect) effect, the cohort of vaccine-eligible children (born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed until the end of 2013 (age range 3-42 months). For the indirect effect, a cohort of older children (age range 7-71 months) not eligible for the PCV vaccination was followed from 2011 to 2013. Both cohorts were compared with two season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. Hospitals’ in- and outpatient discharge notifications with ICD-10 diagnoses compatible with pneumonia (J10.0, J11.0, J12-J18, J85.1 or J86) as set by the hospital pediatricians were collected from the national Care Register. The main outcome was hospital-treated primary pneumonia (HTPP), defined as primary diagnosis of pneumonia after in-patient hospitalization. We compared rates of pneumonia in the NVP target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models.

RESULTS
The rate of HTPP episodes was 5.3/1000 person-years in the combined reference cohorts and 4.1/1000 person-years in the target cohort vaccine-eligible children. Compared with the reference cohort, the relative rate reduction in target cohort was 23% (95%CI 18-28) and the absolute reduction 1.3/1000 person-years. In the indirect effect evaluation, we observed continued increase in HTPP incidence until 2011 with a subsequent reduction of 18% (95%CI 10-25) during years 2012 to 2013. Number of empyema diagnoses remained low.

CONCLUSIONS
A substantial decrease in pneumonia rates was observed both among vaccine-eligible children and among older, unvaccinated children after PCV10 introduction.

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